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Added: Gisel Eshleman - Date: 30.10.2021 15:01 - Views: 46043 - Clicks: 2335

Purpose: Quarantine is necessary to reduce the community spread of the Coronavirus disease, but it also has serious psychological and socially disruptive consequences. This is known as the quarantine paradox that also includes a surge in the cases of gender-based violence. However, there exists a clear gap of rigorous literature exploring the issue. Hence, the current paper attempts to understand gender-based violence as an aspect of the COVID lockdown.

It reviews the pattern of rise in gender violence cases and the resultant psychological and social issues and attempts to create awareness by initiating a discourse urging for change in the response towards the victims of gender-based violence. The paper further attempts to suggest measures to mitigate the issues arising out of gender violence during quarantine.

Method: The current paper reviews the literature on the rise of gender-based violence in the times of current and past pandemics. The paper also reviews the published reports in scientific as well as mass media literatures focusing on the rise of gender-based violence during the imposed lockdown, its consequences, and the measures taken by the governments to tackle the issue.

: The present review reveals that similar to the pandemics and epidemics, there has been an alarming rise in the incidents of gender-based violence during the COVID pandemic. The present review further reveals various other risk factors that have been found attributive to the surge of gender-based violence such as economic insecurity and alcohol consumption.

The of the review indicate that despite its global prevalence, gender-based violence has been one of the most neglected outcomes of pandemics. Moreover, the legislatures and services available for such victims are often inadequate and, thus, worsening their situation. Conclusion: Pandemic situations have been found to be associated with advancements in the medical field. However, a part and parcel of this situation is the age-old practice of quarantine that has several negative outcomes. This also includes a surge in gender-based violence that raises serious concerns about the safety of women.

As the legislatures provided and measures taken by the governments are falling short in dealing with the issue, a of non-government organizations are stepping up to provide necessary services to these victims. Quarantine has been an effective measure of controlling infection since the 14th century. The medieval societies were able to establish a link between the emergence of symptoms and the duration of time. The origin of the term is rooted in the health practice related to plague back in AD when ships were isolated for 30 days and land travelers for 40 days in the sea port of Ragusa 1.

However, the earliest record of quarantine can be traced back to AD 2. Since then, the practice of quarantine has been utilized to reduce the spread of contagious diseases. With the declaration of COVID as a global pandemic, there is a mounting pressure on the governments to take measures to reduce the community spread of the disease.

Hence, in the absence of a vaccine or effective treatment, going into quarantine for varying periods of time is being adopted as an option by most countries. This has led to a drastic alteration in the day-to-day lifestyle of the individuals. Most of the work is being done from home, and efforts are being made to maintain social distance. These measures are crucial to the protection of healthcare systems. However, just like one coin has two sides, the positive efforts to tackle COVID have negative consequences associated with them.

These negative consequences include the risk of losing jobs, economic vulnerabilities, and psychological health issues resulting from isolation, loneliness, and uncertainty, among others. This can be regarded as the quarantine paradox. History has witnessed the weakening of the states in the face of pandemics and outbreaks. The Byzantine empire too had suffered weakening of the economic infrastructure during the Justinian plague 4. Past researches indicate that the risk of serious psychological consequences increases with the increase in the duration of the quarantine 5.

According to Hawryluck et al. Lee et al. Another downside of quarantine is the increase in cases of gender-based violence that is frequently ignored 9. Gender-based violence is a form of violence targeting a person based on the gender of an individual. It is a complex phenomenon that includes combinations of sexual, physical, and emotional violence and neglect or deprivation Some common forms of gender-based violence include sexual violence, violence against women, domestic violence, and harmful traditional practices, such as female genital mutilation.

For the present paper, the term gender-based violence has been used to denote different aspects of domestic violence against women. According to an article published in a national newspaper of India, The Hindu, the National Commission for Women NCW recorded a twofold rise in the cases of gender violence Several researches indicate a rise in family violence and sexual violence during and after any large crisis or disaster [e.

Violence has generally been found to increase in the face of pandemics. For instance, Rose 14 reported an erosion of social norms and increase in violence in Bologna, Italy, in the context of plague and natural disaster. According to UNFPA 15pandemics often lead to breakdowns of social infrastructures thus compounding the already existing weaknesses and conflicts. As a result, the existing gender inequality is worsened by the pandemic situations. It also increases the exposure of children and women to harassment and sexual violence when they try to procure necessities such as water, food, and firewood.

Several researches report that gender-based violence is more prevalent in HIV hyper-endemic countries [e. Researchers have observed a link between the prevalence of HIV epidemic and gender-based violence in India as well 17 Hence, the report had also recommended to prepare and build on existing services for the victims of gender-based violence. The report further emphasized on the need to strengthen online services to provide psychological support and legal aid services According to Menendez et al.

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Consequently, they experience sexual violence and the risk of exposure to the virus through the male carrier. Okur 21 emphasized that sexual and gender-based violence increases during crisis situations due to breakdown in law. Thus, the victims often do not receive the adequate support, and the perpetrators get exempted from punishment.

Also, according to the WHO global ethics unit 22gender roles affect all aspects of an endemic including interpersonal violence. It also emphasized the need of various services to minimize the risk of violence when people are quarantined at home or in institutions. Hence, the present research shall focus on the gender-based violence, because despite being a global phenomenon, it is highly underreported due to stigma and social pressures.

Moreover, there is a lack of studies focusing on the prevalence of gender-based violence during disasters. Consequently, those responding to disasters are often not aware of the possibility of surge in the cases of gender-based violence. Therefore, they often do not prepare to deal with, thereby making the situation worse. In fact, according to John et al. Therefore, we have a limited understanding toward how the victims of gender-based violence respond to the situation of the current pandemic.

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Hence, the present research reviews the linkages between gender violence and pandemic and also attempts to identify the potential policy responses to moderate the issue. In the past, crises have been linked with a surge in cases of gender violence 24 — A surge in intimate partner violence was observed during other disasters such as Earthquake in Haiti inHurricane Katrina inand Eruption of Mount Saint Helens in the s due to unemployment, family, and other stressors Even during the South Asian Tsunami ofa surge in gender-based violence was observed.

Fisher 29 emphasized that in the aftermath of Tsunami, several incidents of violence against women and sexual assault were reported in Sri Lanka. According to researchers, pandemics cannot be considered an exception to this 9. Sikira and Urassa 30 reported an increase in wife battering in the face of the HIV pandemic due to suspicion of extramarital affairs. Recent outbreaks such as Ebola, Cholera, Zika, and Nipah have also led to an increase in the cases of domestic violence During the Ebola virus outbreak, women and girls were especially vulnerable to violence because of the inability to escape their abuser.

Moreover, the victims of violence were not recognized and were often left unattended According to Yasmin 33cases of rape, violence against women, and sexual assault also increased during the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. There are a of reasons for such increase in gender violence cases.

Arthur and Clark 34 also identified economic dependence as a cause for domestic violence. During quarantine, as more women were in informal jobs and got laid off, this led to them experiencing a greater impact as they became economically dependent on their male counterparts. According to Alon et al. This increased economic dependence not only increases their risk of gender-based violence but also makes it difficult to leave their perpetrators. Pandemics like influenza, swine flu, and SARS have been found to result in psychological issues such as anxiety, substance abuse, PTSD, and sleep disturbances that often tend to continue even after the pandemic 36 According to a research by Zhang et al.

A ificant rise in anxiety levels of the COVID patients as well as the general public was reported by the findings of the study. In return, these mental health issues and related factors such as alcoholism tend to lead to a rise in gender-based violence 39 — Several researchers have reported that the sales of alcohol have skyrocketed during pandemic [e. Evidence also suggests that increase in male migration reduces gender violence due to reduced exposure to the potential perpetrators When under quarantine, women individuals are in close proximity to the male members with limited to no freedom to go out, thus leading to an increase in gender violence at home.

Pandemics also increase economic vulnerabilities because of the rise in unemployment, or, in the risk of unemployment. Several studies link economic insecurities to increased gender-based violence. Economic insecurity has been found to be linked to adopting poor coping strategies that are inclusive of substance abuse 46 — These, in turn, have been found to be associated with various forms of gender-based violence However, interesting gender differences can be observed in this context.

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Bhalotra et al. According to Schneider et al. According to Bradbury-Jones and Isham 52it could also be because of the distorted power dynamics at home resulting in abuse and gender violence that escapes the scrutiny of anyone from outside. The problem of gender-based violence during the pandemic further worsens because the police are unable to tackle the issue of gender-based violence.

According to a report, gender-based violence in Liberia could have also increased because the police were overwhelmed and unable to defend the victims Richards 54 reported that economic strain, substance abuse, and isolation all tend to increase the risk of domestic violence.

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Gender-Based Violence During COVID Pandemic: A Mini-Review